How to use

About this site

48 Language Bird Dictionary of the Western and Central Palaearctic Region

Compiled by: Ruurd Jorritsma

Site produced by: De WordPress Specialist

New in Avionary 4.0 (April 2019)

  • About 60 additional species and new species splits
  • Update and extension for several languages: major extensions for Ukrainian, Croat, Serbian, Galician, Catalan, Romansh, Frisian; extensions for Slovenian, Icelandic, Esperanto; updates for Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Slovak, Polish, Latvian and most other languages
  • Additional language: Northern Sami / Davvisámegiella (se)
  • Taxonomy updated; taxonomy data presented for each species
  • Species lists for all 48 languages
  • Pictures of essentially all species

First release of Avionary: 1.0, October 2003
Previous update: Avionary 3.1, December 2015

How to Use Avionary

The names of about 1730 bird species in 48 languages (including Latin as the scientific and first language) are accessible on this site starting from any bird name in any of the languages. 

You simply type a bird name or part thereof, in any of the 48 languages, with or without diacritics. After a sufficient number of letters have been typed (no V or Enter needed), a list of possible species meeting the input is presented from which the bird searched can be selected.

 The result page shows the bird names in all the languages in alphabetic order of the two-letter code of the languages. For explanation of the language code, just click the ‘Languages’ button, or see ‘Languages’ under the ‘Website Info’ tab. 

The list of languages is preceded by the scientific (Latin) name and any synonyms thereof. The relevant family is given. The members of the same family in the language are shown by clicking on the family name and this gives a new result page with the family members, from which a prticular species can be selected. An alternative family name is given when different taxonomic families have been used. See under ‘Taxonomy’ under the ‘Website Info’ tab.

 The regions of the world where the selected species occurs are given in abbreviated form after “Geo” (see ‘Region’ under the ‘Website Info’ tab).

The number of subspecies is indicated after “Taxo”; if there are no subspecies, the species is indicated as “Monotypic”. Differences in species or subspecies status are presented by the indication ‘May be subspecies of …’. See also ‘Taxonomy’.

A picture is shown for essentially all species.

 Possible synonyms, as well as homonyms (confusing names) are presented below the languages list:

  • Synonyms in the various languages are given where a second name is almost equally common. These are indicated as ‘Synonym’ with the two-letter code of the language.
  • Confusing names are names where the same or almost the same name is given to different species in different languages. For example, Herring Gull (English for Larus argentatus) is different from Heringsmöwe (German for Larus fuscus); Sjøorre (Norwegian for Melanitta fusca) is different from Sjöorre (Swedish for Melanitta nigra). A complex example is the ’Sand Lark’. In Esperanto, English Swedish, Latvian and Romanian (and sometimes French), this name is given to Calandrella raytal, in German, Croatian and Hungarian, this name goes to Ammomanes cinctura, while the Greek and Polish ‘Sand Lark’ is Ammomanes deserti, the Bulgarian one is Eremalauda dunni and the Icelandic one is Calandrella brachydactyla. Such cases are mentioned as ‘Confusing’ followed by the two-letter code of the language(s) having the confusing name and the scientific name of the species where the other language has the same or similar name. These cases are not exhaustive, and to some extent confusion is a subjective thing; therefore, the absence of the ‘Confusing’ label does not necessarily mean that no confusion or ambiguity can arise from any of the names of a species.

Lists of all ornithological species and families of Avionary for all of the languages, divided in groups of 4-5 more or less related languages, are presented under “Species Lists”. Families which are more broadly covered in Avionary than the Western and Central Palearctic region are indicated by “P” (whole Palearctic), “H” (Holarctic), “HA” (Holarctic plus Africa) or “M” (whole world).


The author wishes to thank all the experts in the various language regions who provided the names in their languages and spent many hours in finding and discussing the most appropriate bird names. The names of the experts are mentioned under ‘The Languages’.

Thanks also go to those who provided photographs, sometimes without knowing it.

Infinite thanks go to Theo Smeets, who used all his admirable wits and lots of his time for devising, constructing and upgrading this website. Thanks aslo to Joost de Rooy of De WordPress-specialist for developing the present verson of Avionary.

Aan Annette. Aan Ria.

Ruurd Jorritsma

Huizen, Nederland

First release September 2003,

Latest Update March 2019.