The Languages

The Languages


51 Language Bird Dictionary of the Avionarctic (Holarctic) Region

Version 4.3 – January 2023

Compiled by: Ruurd Jorritsma

Site produced by: Joost de Rooy

The 51 languages of this dictionary are listed below with their international two-letter language code ISO 639-1, and three-letter language code ISO 639-2(T)/ISO 689-3, followed by the name of the language in the language itself, followed by the name of the language in English. Some general information of the language is given, as well as the coverage (percentage of the Avionary species provided in the language). The sources of the bird names are mentioned for each language. The relevant species lists per language are indicated as well.
Avionary consistently uses one initial capital for the bird names in all languages, with the exception of English. Most languages in practice use only lower case names, on the principle that bird names are by their nature generic names, not individual’s or proper names. In a few languages, the use of capitals in bird names varies according to habits or authorities, as well as over time (increased tendency to avoid capitals).