The Languages

50 Language Bird Dictionary of the extended Western and Central Palaearctic Region

Version 4.1 – June 2020 – Added languages: Belarusian (Беларуская мова – be, bel) and Greenlandic (Kalaallisut – kl, kal)

Compiled by: Ruurd Jorritsma

Site produced by: Joost de Rooy

The Languages

The 50 languages of this dictionary are listed below with their international two-letter language code ISO 639-1, and three-letter language code ISO 639-2(T)/ISO 689-3, followed by the name of the language in the language itself, followed by the name of the language in English. The sources of the bird names are mentioned for each language. The relevant species lists per language are indicated as well.

Avionary consistently uses one initial capital for the bird names in all languages, with the exception of English. Most languages in practice use only lower case names, on the principle that bird names are by their nature generic names, not individual’s or proper names. In a few languages, the use of capitals in bird names varies according to habits or authorities, as well as over time (increased tendency to avoid capitals).

la – lat – Latina – Latin | | The scientific language. As for the choice between synonyms, see “Taxonomy”.
af – afr – Afrikaans | | The bird names in Afrikaans include those of the “Voëllys” of BirdLife Suid-Afrika of 2020 (7de Uitgawe), compiled by the Afrikaanse Voëlnaamgroep (AVNG). For some species outside the South African region names based on analogy are given. The available names in Afrikaans are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.

be – bel – Беларускі – Belarusian | | Belarusian bird names are new in Avionary 4.1. They originate from The Official List of Bird Species Recorded in Belarus of I. Samusenko, A. Vinchevskiy et al. (2017), and from the Western Palearctic List “Спіс Беларускіх Навуковых Назваў Птушак Еўропы” (2000). Some further names are given based on analogy with Russian, Ukrainian or Polish names. The Belarusian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Russian, Ukrainian and Hungarian: la/uk/be/ru/hu

bg – bul – Български – Bulgarian | | The “List of the Birds Recorded in Bulgaria” of the Bulgarian National Rarities Committee (BuNaRCo), 2nd Edition of December 2014, kindly provided by Petar Iankov of the Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds (BSPB), forms the basis of the Bulgarian names. Further names were provided by Tanyo Michev of Central Laboratory of General Ecology (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) and by Ivaylo Angelov of the BSPB, or selected from other sources. The available Bulgarian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.
br – bre – Brezhoneg – Breton | | Thanks go to Périg Herbert (†) and the Servij ar Brezhoneg. Updates and many additions were kindly provided by Divi Kervella (Office de la langue bretonne), and further originate from the Brezhoneg Wikipedia. The available names in Breton are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.
ca – cat – Català – Catalan | | Catalan bird names for the non-passerines and a few passerines are based on the Termcat database (http://www.termcat.cat/ca/diccionaris_en_linia/233); elaborated by Aymí; Cebrian; Clavell; Giménez, and Mascarell. Most of the passerines are not yet in Termcat and for these the Avibase names were generally followed. Originally Catalan names were provided by Francesc Llimona and Eloisa Matheu of the Universitat de Barcelona. Checks, additions and corrections were provided by Jordi Clavell and his colleagues of the ‘Comissió dels Noms dels Ocells en Català’. The Catalan names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/gl/es/ca.
cs – ces – Český – Czech | | Czech bird names originate from the ‘Biolib’ database edited by Ondřej Zicha (www.biolib.cz). Names were originally given by František Hanak of the Moravská Ornitologická Stanice and Karel Šťastný. The Czech names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.B31
cy – cym – Cymraeg – Welsh | | The Welsh list is now drastically expanded on the basis of Porth Termau, accessible at termau.cymru, which provides Welsh bird names of the whole world, thanks to the gargantuan efforts of Davyth Feare, Eilir Evans and further contributors. Duncan Brown, Andrew Hawke and Robin Owain (wicipediacymraeg) were also essential in providing the Welsh bird names. In the past, Welsh names were provided by Ted Breeze Jones and resulted in the ‘Rhestr o Adar Ewrop’ (1996), Twm Elias and others. Davyth Feare also intermediated in providing names in Breton, Manx, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. The available Welsh names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.
da – dan – Dansk – Danish | | These are from the “Vest Palæarktiske Fugle”, 5. Udgave, Nov. 2018, of Jon Fjeldså, Svend Rønnest and Mogens Behnke-Pedersen of the Navnegruppe of the Dansk Ornitologisk Forening (DOF). For birds outside the West Palaearctic, the names are from ‘Navne på alverdens fugle’ (November 2019), also by DOF’s Navnegruppe. This latest world list contains all non-passerines, as well as many passerines including those which are relevant for the Avionarctic or Holarctic region. Predecessors of the members of the Navnegruppe who directly provided Danish names were Bent Pors Nielsen and the late Lasse Kreutzfeldt. The Danish names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.
de – deu – Deutsch – German | | Names in German are based on those provided by Peter H. Barthel (Limicola; Vögel Europas Nordafrikas und Vorderasiens, Svensson et al., 1999, Deutsche Artenliste, 2005, and the 2018 update of the latter: Barthel c.s., Vogelwarte 56, 2018: 205 – 224). An update of the world list of the Kommission Deutsche Namen für die Vögel der Erde (chaired by Peter Barthel), is in progress, and most updated names are mentioned in the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. The German names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.
el – ell – Ελληνικά – Greek | | Greek names include those of the list of Birds of Greece of the Hellenic Ornithological Society. Several additional names were coined, previously in consultation with George I. Handrinos. The available Greek names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Turkish, Albanian, Maltese and Basque: el/tr/sq/mt/eu.
en – eng – English – English | | The primary English name are those of the IOC World Bird List (Rasmussen and Donsker), version 10.1, January 2020. Where the English names of other major lists are different from the IOC list, these are consistently mentioned under “Other English names” followed by an indication of the source (B,C,H,W,A). These include those of the British Birds (BB) list of Western Palaearctic Birds of January 2020 (B), the eBird/Clements checklist (August 2019) (C), Howard and Moore (2018) (H), the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (2020) (W), and the AOU (American Ornithological Union) checklist (2019) (A). Where the only difference is the spelling of “Grey” (British) vs. “Gray” (American), the latter is not mentioned separately. Also differences in hyphenation and secondary capital (Laughing Thrush, vs. Laughing-Thrush vs. Laughing-thrush) are not mentioned, the first (IOC) generally being retained. Where another list, in particular HBW, recognizes a split species not (yet) adopted by IOC, the English names for the split species of that list is given, the IOC name, if different, being “Other”. The IOC English names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with the most important Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.
eo – epo – Esperanto – Esperanto | | The basis of the Esperanto names is the ‘Komunlingva Nomaro de Eŭropaj Birdoj’ (1970) of the Nomenklatura Komisiono de la Ornitologia Rondo Esperantlingva, subsequently enlarged as the ‘Komunlingva Nomaro de la Okcidentpalearktaj Birdoj’ (1989, 1995) by Ruurd Jorritsma. Additional names were coined following the guidelines of the Nomenklatura Komisiono or taken from the Esperanto wikipedia. The available names in Esperanto are also listed on the relevant species list L.
es – spa – Español – Spanish | | The ‘Nombres en castellano de las aves del mundo’ of the Sociedad Española de Ornitología are followed, the last additions being kindly provided by Eduardo de Juana (Universidad Complutense de Madrid). Additional or updated names stem from Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. The Spanish (Castilian) names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/gl/es/ca.
et – est – Eesti – Estonian | | Estonian names are those of the Estonian Bird Names Committee (Eerik Leibak and coworkers) of Eesti Ornitoloogiaühing (Birdlife Estonia). These are available on https://eoy.ee/ET/16/31/birdnames. The first contributions were made by the late Heinrich Veromann, followed by those of Eerik Leibak and Vilju Lilleleht, The available Estonian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Finnish, Northern Sami and the Baltic languages: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.
eu – eus – Euskera – Basque | | Miel Loinaz (UZEI: Basque Centre for Terminology and Linguistics) and Josetxo Riofrio (ARANZADI) provided Basque names and helped in developing new names. The available Basque names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Turkish, Albanian and Maltese: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.
fi – fin – Suomen – Finnish | | Finnish names are those of the “Maailman lintulajien suomenkieliset nimet” of July 2018, by Harri Högmander, Heidi Björklund, Jukka Hintikka, Juhani Lokki, Jan Södersved and William Velmala of BirdLife Suomi, available on www.birdlife.fi. The Finnish names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Northern Sami, Estonian and the Baltic languages: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.
fo – fao – Føroyskt – Faroese | | Faroese bird names were kindly provided by the late Prof. Dorete Bloch of the Faroese Museum of Natural History. The available Faroese names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo. 
fr – fra – Français – French | | These are the ‘Noms français des oiseaux du Monde’ as distributed by the ‘Commission internationale des noms français des oiseaux (CINFO)’ of Pierre Devillers and his colleagues, Ouellet, Benito-Espinal, Beudels, Cruon, David, Érard, Gosselin and Seutin, accessible at www.ona.vu/cinfo/. In the past, Mr. J-F. Voisin also provided names directly. The French names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.
fy – fry – Frysk – Frisian | | Frisian names are basically those of J. Boersma: It Wylde Fûgelt: List fan Fryske Fûgelnammen, 1981/1994. Additional names are provided, many of them for the first time in this Avionary version 4.0 or 4.1. The available Frisian names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.
ga – gle – Gaeilge – Irish | | Tomás de Bhaldraithe (†) and Diarmaid O’hAirt of the Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann (Royal Irish Academy) provided Irish names including many new names. A more recent review and extension was kindly provided by Éamon de Buitléar († 2013) and Diarmaid O’hAirt. The Irish names were checked and where necessary adapted to the recently available Irish terminology base www.tearma.ie. The available Gaelic names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.
gd – gla – Gaidhlig – Scots Gaelic | | Kindly provided by Davyth Fear. The available names in Scottish Gaelic are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Greenlandic: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.
gl – glg – Galego – Galician | | The names originate from “Os nomes galegos das aves” of A Chave, 4th Edititon (2019), available on https://achave.gal/wp-content/uploads/achave_osnomesgalegosdas_aves_2019.pdf. The 3rd edition thereof was elaborated in cooperation between A Chave (Silverio Cerradelo and co-workers) and Avionary. The Galician names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/ga/es/ca.
gv – glv – Gaelg vanninagh – Manx | | A thoroughly revised and extended list of Manx bird names was kindly provided by Chris Sheard, of the Manx Heritage Foundation, after previous contributions of Philip Gawne and Paul Helps. The available Manx names are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Greenlandic: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.
hr – hrv – Hrvatski – Croatian | | Goran Sušić, Dragan Radović and Jelena Kralj of the Hrvatska Akademija Znanosti I Umjetnosti (HAZU) provided the Croatian names. Major extensions were kindly provided by Jelena Kralj; these were also published in the “Rječnik standardnih hrvatskih ptičjih naziva 2018” of the HAZU. The Croatian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.
hu – hun – Magyar – Hungarian | | Hungarian names were given by László Haraszthy, of the Országos Környezetés Természetvédelmi Hivatal Madártani Intézet (Budapest). Hungarian Wikipedia  or Avibase names were added. The available Hungarian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian: la/uk/be/ru/hu.
is – isl – Íslenska – Icelandic | | Mr. Ævar Petersen of the Náttúrufræðistofnun Íslands provided and updated the Icelandic names. Some further names are provided by Gunnlaugur Pétursson. The available Icelandic names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.
it – ita – Italiano – Italian | | Names are essentially those of Lista Ornitica del Paleartico Occidentale of the EBN Italia by Gianluigi Castelli, Pietro D’Amelio and Marcel Haas, Version 2019. Names not appearing on the Lista Ornitica originate from the Italian world lists of Massa et al. (2000), Violani et al. (2006), and occasionally from the Clements/Ornitour Italian world checklist (2015/2019). The Italian names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.
kl – kal – Kalaallisut – Greenlandic | | Greenlandic bird names are new in Avionary. The names are based on the combined lists of asimi.gl, businessingreenland.gl and David Boertman (Arctic Research Centre of Aarhus Universitet DK), with further help and additions of Katti Frederiksen (Oqaasileriffik, Language Secretariat) and Aili Lage Labansen, Emma Kristensen and Else Løvstrøm (Pinngortitaleriffik, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources).in Greenland. The Greenlandic names are also listed on a reduced species list K, together with English and some of the Celtic languages: la//en/gd/gv/kw/kl.
kw – cor – Kernewek – Cornish | | Thanks go to Brian Webb. The available Cornish names are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Greenlandic: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.
lb – ltz – Lëtzebuergesch – Luxemburgish | | Names were kindly provided by Patric Lorgé of the Lëtzebuerger Natur- a Vulleschutzliga (LNVL). The available names in Luxemburgish are also listed on the a reduced species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.
lt – lit – Lietuvių – Lithuanian | | The original source of the Lithuanian names was Liutauras Raudonikis. Further work was done by members of the Lietuvos Ornitologų Draugija. The present names essentially correspond to those of the book “Paukščių Pavadinimų Žodynas” by Mečislovas Žalakevičius and Irena Žalakevičienė (2009). The Lithuanian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Latvian, Estonian Finnish and Northern Sami: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.
lv – lav – Latviešu – Latvian | | Latvian names are essentially those of Holarktikas Putnu Nosaukumi, the Holarctic list of Māris Strazds, Jānis Baumanis and Kaspars Funts (2014), adopted by the Latvijas Ornitoloģias Biedrība, with some additions. Jānis Baumanis and Māris Strazds provided the original names for Avionary. The available Latvian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Lithuanian, Estonian Finnish and Northern Sami: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.
mk – mkd – Македонски – Macedonian | | Macedonian names are those of the list of the Macedonian Ecological Society (Македонско Еколошко Друштво, MES), kindly provided by Metodija Velevski. The available Macedonian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.
mt – mlt – Malti – Maltese | | Maltese bird names were given by Joe Sultana, Ornithological Society of Malta. The available Maltese names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Turkish, Albanian and Basque: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.
nl – nld – Nederlands – Dutch | | Names of the Dutch Checklist of the Western Palaearctic of the Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna, januari 2020, are presented. Other species follow ‘Vogels van de wereld’ by Michel Walters (1997), with a few exceptions. A general exception is made for names containing proper names: according to general Dutch language principles, these are written as a single word, e.g. ‘Audouinmeeuw’ rather than ‘Audouins meeuw’. The Dutch names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.
no – nor – Norsk – Norwegian | | Norwegian names are provided by the ‘Norsk Navnekomité for Fugl’ of the Norsk Ornitologisk Forening (NOF) by Morten Bergan, Per Ole Syvertsen, O.B. Hansen, H. Kvam, V. Ree and Ø. Syvertsen. The updated NOF “Verdensliste” was released in December 2017, with further updates of December 2018 and December 2019. The Norwegian names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.
pl – pol – Polski – Polish | | Tadeusz Stawarczyk, Paweł Mielczarek and Włodzimierz Cichocki originally provided the Polish names. The updated world list ‘Kompletna lista ptaków świata’ (update of March 2020) of Paweł Mielczarek and M. Kuziemko is used for Avionary and is accessible on the internet (http://listaptakow.eko.uj.edu.pl). The Polish names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavonic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.
pt – por – Português – Portuguese | | Names are from ‘Nomes Portugueses das Aves do Paleárctico Ocidental’ by Hélder Costa and colleagues (2000) of the Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves (SPEA). Names of birds occurring in Brazil, and not regularly in Portugal, are from the Lista das Aves do Brasil of the Comité Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2015). The Portuguese list of Avionary was completed with the help of Messrs. Hélder Costa and Joaquim Muchaxo of SPEA. The orthography of SPEA was followed (consistent hyphenation, no capitals inside names). The available Portuguese names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/ga/es/ca.
rm – roh – Rumantsch – Romansh (Rhaeto-romance) | | The names are “Rumantsch Grischun”, i.e. standardised Romansh, which may have slight deviations in the various dialects (Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Putèr, Vallader). The names were provided by the Lia rumantscha, Servetsch da translaziun – Daniel Telli, Carin Coray, Angela Schmed – and considerably extended in versions 4.0 and 4.1 cooperation between Lia Rumantscha and Avionary. The available Romansh names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.
ro – ron – Română – Romanian | | The basic Romanian list was provided by Victor Ciochia of the Societatea de Ornitologie, Protecţia Păsărilor şi a Naturii din România. Corrections were taken from the list of the Asociaţia pentru Protecţia Păsărilor şi a Naturii “Milvus Group”. Additional Romanian bird names were derived from relevant dictionaries. The available Romanian names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.
ru – rus – Русский – Russian | | Russian bird names are now thoroughly reviewed on the basis of “Birds of the World: Recommended Russian Names” (non-passerines: 2017, passerines: draft 2019) by Sergey Volkov and Yevgeniy Koblik. Previous names were derive from Vladimir E. Flint’s ‘Slovarj Nazvanij Zhivotnykh – Ptyci’ (Vocabularium Nominum Animalium – Aves). The Russian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Ukrainian, Belarusian and Hungarian and Esperanto: la/uk/be/ru/hu.
se – sme – Davvisámegiella – Northern Sami | | The bird names in the language of the Northernmost part of Scandinavia are derived from “Nordsamiske fuglenavn / Davvisámegiela loddenamat” compiled by Magne Husby and Per M. Vars of the Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, Utredning 141, available at https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/275168?show=full, with some extensions. The Northern Sami names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Finnish, Estonian and the Baltic languages: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.
sk – slk – Slovenský – Slovak | | Slovak bird names are those of the Slovak world list “Slovenské mená vtákov sveta” by Peter Kovalik and co-workers, update of January 2018. Originally, Slovak names were provided by Branislav Matoušek of the Slovenské Národné Múzeum. The Slovak names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.
sl – slv – Slovenščina – Slovenian | | Janez Gregori of the Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije provided the Slovenian names. Further additions were kindly presented by Jurij Hanzel, chair of the Slovenian rarities committee of the Društvo za Opazovanje In Proučevanje Ptic Slovenije (DOPPS, Birdlife SI), on proposals from Avionary. The available Slovenian names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with West Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.
sq – sqi – Shqip – Albanian | | Grigor Jorgo, Museum of Natural Sciences, Tiranë, kindly provided the Albanian bird names. The available Albanian names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Turkish, Maltese and Basque: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.

sr – srp – Srpski/Српски -Serbian | | The Serbian names are those of the “Srpska Nomenklatura I & II” of Vasić, V.F., Simić, D.V., et al. (2004-2005), kindly provided by Dragan Simić, with further information. Additional were provided by Željko Stanimirović. The available Serbian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg. Serbian uses both the Cyrillic and the Latin alphabet. Avionary uses the Latin alphabet; the corresponding Cyrillic letters are as follows: | | a (а), b (б), c (ц), č (ч), ć (ћ), d (д), dž (џ), đ (ђ), e (е), f (ф), g (г), h (х), i (и), j (ј), k (к), l (л), lj (љ), m (м), n (н), nj (њ), o (о), p (п), r (р), s (с), š (ш), t (т), u (у), v (в), z (з), ž (ж). Thus, Guska glogovnjača (Anser fabalis) is in Cyrillic: Гуска глоговњача. 

sv – swe – Svenska – Swedish | | Swedish names stem originate from “Namnlistan över alla världens fågelarter”, version 11, March 2020, elaborated by the Taksonomikommitté of the Svenska Ornitologiska Förening (SOF) (Erling Jirle, Tommy Tyrberg, Johan Fromholtz, Markus Lagerkvist). Previous contributions came from i.a. Mr. Nils Kjéllen. The Swedish names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.
tr – tur – Türkçe – Turkish | | Turkish names were provided by Güneşin Aydemir and established by Sancar Baris, Can Bilgin, Serhan Oksay, Serhan Goksu, Asaf Ertan, Guven Eken, Ali Demirsoy and Ilhami Kızıroglu at the Doğal Hayati Koruma Derneği (Society for Conservation of Nature in Turkey) with occasional additions from Mr. Oksay, from the Turkish list published in Wikipedia and from “Türkçe Kuş Adları Tarama Sözlüğü” by Ümüt Çınar (2018). The available Turkish names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Albanian, Maltese and Basque: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.
uk – ukr – Українська – Ukrainian | | The Ukrainian names are those of the recent book ‘Vitchyzniana nomenklatura ptakhiv svitu’ (2018) of Hennady V. Fesenko of the Zahidnoukraïns’ke Ornitologičke Tovarystvo (West-Ukrainian Ornithological Society). Further names, especially recent and potential splits, were elaborated through fruitful personal communication with Mr. Fesenko. Ukrainian names were originally provided by Igor Gorban of Lviv State University, who sadly passed away in 2017. Ukrainian consistently uses two-word names for species (exceptionally one-word names for one-species families), and three-word names for subspecies. Where the (sub)species status in not settled, Avionary adds a middle word in parentheses, which applies if the taxon is considered as a subspecies, while it is to be left out for species status. The Ukrainian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Russian, Belarusian and Hungarian: la/uk/be/ru/hu.