AVIONARY – THE LANGUAGES
51 Language Bird Dictionary of the Avionarctic (Holarctic) Region
Version 4.2 – November 2021 – Added language: Georgian (Kartuli, ქართული, ka, kat / geo)
Compiled by: Ruurd Jorritsma
Site produced by: Joost de Rooy
The 51 languages of this dictionary are listed below with their international two-letter language code ISO 639-1, and three-letter language code ISO 639-2(T)/ISO 689-3, followed by the name of the language in the language itself, followed by the name of the language in English. Some general information of the language is given, as well as the coverage (percentage of the Avionary species provided in the language). The sources of the bird names are mentioned for each language. The relevant species lists per language are indicated as well.
Avionary consistently uses one initial capital for the bird names in all languages, with the exception of English. Most languages in practice use only lower case names, on the principle that bird names are by their nature generic names, not individual’s or proper names. In a few languages, the use of capitals in bird names varies according to habits or authorities, as well as over time (increased tendency to avoid capitals).
|la – lat – Latina – Latin | | The scientific language. As for the choice between synonyms, see “Taxonomy”.|
af – afr – Afrikaans | About 7 million speakers, in South Africa, Namibia, and some of the neighbouring countries. Only Avionary language outside the Avionarctic region | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 43% | The bird names in Afrikaans include those of the “Voëllys” of BirdLife Suid-Afrika of 2021 (8ste Uitgawe), compiled by the Afrikaanse Voëlnaamgroep (AVNG). For some species outside the South African region names based on analogy are given. The available names in Afrikaans are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.
be – bel – Беларускі – Belarusian | 3 to 6 million speakers, in Belarus and some in Russia | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 58% | Belarusian bird names originate from The Official List of Bird Species Recorded in Belarus of I. Samusenko, A. Vinchevskiy et al. (2017), and from the Western Palearctic List “Спіс Беларускіх Навуковых Назваў Птушак Еўропы” (2000). Some further names are given based on analogy with Russian, Ukrainian or Polish names. The Belarusian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Russian, Ukrainian and Georgian: la/uk/be/ru/ka.
|bg – bul – Български – Bulgarian | About 7 million speakers, in Bulgaria and some of the neighbouring countries, and in the diaspora | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 72% | The “List of the Birds Recorded in Bulgaria” of the Bulgarian National Rarities Committee (BuNaRCo), 2nd Edition of December 2014, kindly provided by Petar Iankov of the Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds (BSPB), forms the basis of the Bulgarian names. Petar Iankov provided further names. In the past, Tanyo Michev of Central Laboratory of General Ecology (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) and by Ivaylo Angelov of the BSPB, helped with providing Bulgarian bird names. The available Bulgarian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.|
|br – bre – Brezhoneg – Breton | About 200,000 speakers, in Bretagne (France) | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 43% | Thanks go to Périg Herbert (†) and the Servij ar Brezhoneg. Updates and many additions were kindly provided by Divi Kervella (Office de la langue bretonne), and further originate from the Brezhoneg Wikipedia. The available names in Breton are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.|
ca – cat – Català – Catalan | About 5 million speakers, in Spain (Catalunya, Valencia, Baleares) and Andorra | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 96% | Catalan bird names for the non-passerines and part of the passerines are based on the Termcat database (http://www.termcat.cat/ca/diccionaris_en_linia/233); elaborated by Rafel Cebrian; Jordi Clavell, Manel Enric Contreras, Ponç Feliu, Àlex Mascarell and Raül Aymíl, kindly provided by Glòria Fontova Hugas. Part of the passerines are not yet in Termcat and for these the Avibase names were generally followed. Originally Catalan names were provided by Francesc Llimona and Eloisa Matheu of the Universitat de Barcelona. Checks, additions and corrections were provided by Jordi Clavell and his colleagues of the ‘Comissió dels Noms dels Ocells en Català’. The Catalan names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/gl/es/ca.
|cs – ces – Český – Czech | Around 10 million speakers, in the Czech Republic and some of the neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 97% | Czech bird names of the Western Palearctic originate from Seznam ptáků západopalearktické oblasti of the Názvoslovná komise ČSO (Czech Ornithological Society). Names of birds from outside the WP are those of originate from the ‘Biolib’ database edited by Ondřej Zicha (www.biolib.cz). Czech names were originally given by František Hanak of the Moravská Ornitologická Stanice and Karel Šťastný. The Czech names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/cs/sk/sl.|
|cy – cym – Cymraeg – Welsh | Roughly 600,000 speakers, in Wales (GB), and some in England | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 93% | The Welsh list stems from Porth Termau, accessible at termau.cymru, which provides Welsh bird names of the whole world, thanks to the gargantuan efforts of Davyth Feare, Eilir Evans and further contributors. Duncan Brown, Andrew Hawke and Robin Owain (wicipediacymraeg) were also essential in providing the Welsh bird names. In the past, Welsh names were provided by Ted Breeze Jones and resulted in the ‘Rhestr o Adar Ewrop’ (1996), Twm Elias and others. Davyth Feare also intermediated in providing names in Breton, Manx, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. The available Welsh names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.|
|da – dan – Dansk – Danish | About 6 million speakers, in Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and some in Denmarks neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage >99% | These are from ‘Navne på alverdens fugle’ (November 2019) established by Navnegruppe of the Dansk Ornitologisk Forening (DOF): Mogens Behnke-Pedersen, Svend Rønnest, J. Møller Hansen, with some minor corrections, as well as from the 2018 Western-Palaearctic list, also of the Navnegruppe. Predecessors of the members of the Navnegruppe who directly provided Danish names were Bent Pors Nielsen and the late Lasse Kreutzfeldt. The Danish names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.|
|de – deu – Deutsch – German | Around 95 million speakers, in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and minorities in Italy and several other countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage >99% | Names in German are th ccose from “Deutsche Namen der Vögel der Erde” by Peter H. Barthel c.s. (Namenkommission der Deutschen Ornithologen-Gesellschaft und IOU), Vogelwarte 58 (2020), 1-214. The German names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.|
|el – ell – Ελληνικά – Greek | About 13 million speakers, in Greece, Cyprus, Albania and other neighbouring countries and in the diaspora | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 56% | Greek names include those of the list of Birds of Greece of the Hellenic Ornithological Society. Several additional names were coined, previously in consultation with George I. Handrinos. The available Greek names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Albanian, Maltese and Basque: lt/eu/|
|en – eng – English – English | About 500 million native speakers, in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and several other countries, as well as second language for some milliard people | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 100% | The primary English names are those of the IOC World Bird List (Gill, Rasmussen and Donsker), version 11.2, July 2021. Where the English names of other major lists are different from the IOC list, these are mentioned under “Other English names” followed by an indication of the source (B,C,H,W,A). These include those of the British Birds (BB) list of Western Palaearctic Birds of January 2021 (B), the eBird/Clements checklist (August 2021) (C), Howard and Moore (2018) (H), the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (2021) (W), and the AOU (American Ornithological Union) checklist (2021) (A). Where the only difference is the spelling of “Grey” (British) vs. “Gray” (American), the latter is not mentioned separately. Also differences in hyphenation and secondary capital (Laughing Thrush, vs. Laughing-Thrush vs. Laughing-thrush) are not mentioned, the first (IOC) being retained. Where another list recognizes a split species not (yet) adopted by IOC, the English names for the split species of that list is given, the IOC name, if different, being “Other”. The IOC English names, together with the most frquent synoyms, are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with the most important Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.|
|eo – epo – Esperanto | Constructed language used by some 100,000 active speakers and widely used as an auxiliary language worldwide | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: >99% | The basis of the Esperanto names is the ‘Komunlingva Nomaro de Eŭropaj Birdoj’ (1970) of the Nomenklatura Komisiono de la Ornitologia Rondo Esperantlingva, subsequently enlarged as the ‘Komunlingva Nomaro de la Okcidentpalearktaj Birdoj’ (1989, 1995) by Ruurd Jorritsma. Additional names were taken from the Esperanto wikipedia, while following the guidelines of the Nomenklatura Komisiono. The available names in Esperanto are also listed on the relevant species list L: la/lv/lt/tr/eo.|
|es – spa – Español – Spanish or castellano – Spanish | About 500 million speakers, in Spain, Middle and South American countries and in some regions in Asia and Africa | 4.2 Avionary Species Coverage: 99% | The ‘Nombres en castellano de las aves del mundo’ of the Sociedad Española de Ornitología are followed, the last additions being kindly provided by Eduardo de Juana (Universidad Complutense de Madrid). Additional or updated names stem from Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. The Spanish (Castilian) names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/gl/es/ca.|
|et – est – Eesti – Estonian | About 1.1 million speakers, in Estonia and elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 93% | Estonian names are those of the Estonian Bird Names Committee (Eerik Leibak and coworkers) of Eesti Ornitoloogiaühing (Birdlife Estonia). These are available on https://eoy.ee/ET/16/31/birdnames. The first contributions were made by the late Heinrich Veromann, followed by those of Eerik Leibak and Vilju Lilleleht, The available Estonian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Hungarian, Finnish and Northern Sami: la/hu/et/fi/se.|
|eu – eus – Euskera or Euskara – Basque | About 750,000 speakers, in Basque Country (Spain and France), and some elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 34% | Miel Loinaz (UZEI: Basque Centre for Terminology and Linguistics) and Josetxo Riofrio (ARANZADI) provided Basque names and helped in developing new names. The available Basque names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Albanian and Maltese: la/eu/mt/sq/el.|
|fi – fin – Suomen – Finnish | Nearly 6 million speakers, in Finland and some of the neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 95% | Finnish names are those of the “Maailman lintulajien suomenkieliset nimet” of July 2018, by Harri Högmander, Heidi Björklund, Jukka Hintikka, Juhani Lokki, Jan Södersved and William Velmala of BirdLife Suomi, available on www.birdlife.fi. The Finnish names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Northern Sami, Estonian and Hungarian: la/hu/et/fi/se.|
|fo – fao – Føroyskt – Faroese | About 70,000 speakers, in the Faroe Islands and in Denmark | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 22% | Faroese bird names were kindly provided by the late Prof. Dorete Bloch of the Faroese Museum of Natural History. The available Faroese names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.|
|fr – fra – Français – French | About 80 million native speakers, in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada (Québec) and many other countries and regions of the world | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: >99% | These are the ‘Noms français des oiseaux du Monde’ as distributed by the ‘Commission internationale des noms français des oiseaux (CINFO)’ of Pierre Devillers and his colleagues, Ouellet, Benito-Espinal, Beudels, Cruon, David, Érard, Gosselin and Seutin, accessible at www.ona.vu/cinfo/. Changes and additions presented on eBIrd/HBW and IOC were also adopted. In the past, Mr. J-F. Voisin also provided names directly. The French names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.|
|fy – fry – Frysk – (West) Frisian | Nearly 400,000 speakers in the Netherlands (Fryslân) and some elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: >99% | The core of the Frisian bird names consists of those of J. Boersma: It Wylde Fûgelt: List fan Fryske Fûgelnammen, 1981/1994. Additional names are provided, many of them for the first time in this Avionary version 4.2 or 4.1. The available Frisian names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.|
|ga – gle – Gaeilge – Irish | Some 70,000 active speakers in Ireland and elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 80% | Tomás de Bhaldraithe (†) and Diarmaid O’hAirt of the Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann (Royal Irish Academy) provided Irish names including many new names. A more recent review and extension was kindly provided by Éamon de Buitléar († 2013) and Diarmaid O’hAirt. The Irish names were checked and where necessary adapted to the recently available Irish terminology base www.tearma.ie. The available Gaelic names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.|
|gd – gla – Gaidhlig – Scots Gaelic | In the order of 50,000 speakers in Scotland (GB) and elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 15% | The Scottish Gaelic names were kindly provided by Davyth Fear. The available names in Scottish Gaelic are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Greenlandic: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.|
|gl – glg – Galego – Galician | Over 2 million speakers, mainly in Galicia (Spain) | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 91% | The names originate from “Os nomes galegos das aves” of A Chave, 4th Edititon (2019), available on https://achave.gal/wp-content/uploads/achave_osnomesgalegosdas_aves_2019.pdf. The 3rd edition thereof was elaborated in cooperation between A Chave (Silverio Cerradelo and co-workers) and Avionary. The Galician names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/ga/es/ca.|
|gv – glv – Gaelg vanninagh – Manx | The language of the island of Man was close to extinction, but there are some 1,000 speakers today | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 33% | A thoroughly revised and extended list of Manx bird names was kindly provided by Chris Sheard, of the Manx Heritage Foundation, after previous contributions of Philip Gawne and Paul Helps. The available Manx names are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Greenlandic: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.|
|hr – hrv – Hrvatski – Croatian | About 5.5 million speakers in Croatia, Bosnia Hercegovina and neighbouring countries; also considered as the Croatian variety of the Serbo-Croatian language | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 99% | Goran Sušić, Dragan Radović and Jelena Kralj of the Hrvatska Akademija Znanosti I Umjetnosti (HAZU) provided the Croatian names. Major extensions were kindly provided by Jelena Kralj; these were also published in the “Rječnik standardnih hrvatskih ptičjih naziva 2018” of the HAZU. The Croatian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.|
|hu – hun – Magyar – Hungarian | About 13 million speakers in Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and other neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species coverage: 89% | Hungarian names were given by László Haraszthy, of the Országos Környezetés Természetvédelmi Hivatal Madártani Intézet (Budapest). Hungarian Wikipedia or Avibase names were added. The available Hungarian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Estonia, Finnish and Northerrn Sami: la/hu/et/fi/se.|
|is – isl – Íslenska – Icelandic | Over 300,000 speakers, mainly in Iceland, some outside | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 72% | Icelandic names are those of the 2015 update of the ‘Fuglar Heimsins’ by Gunnlaugur Pétursson. Previously, Ævar Petersen of the Náttúrufræðistofnun Íslands provided and updated the Icelandic names. Some further names are provided by Gunnlaugur Pétursson. The available Icelandic names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.|
ka – kat / geo – ქართული (Kartuli) – Georgian | About 4 million speakers in Georgia and neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species coverage: 33% | The Georgian bird names were provided by Khatia Basilashvili of the Georgian Society for Nature Conservation (SABUKO), and are accessible through sabuko.ge/bird-checklist. Some names were added. In the search tool, the Georgian bird names are presented in the Georgian alphabet (Mkhedruli). On the species list G, the Georgian names are listed both in the Georgian script and in the international Latin transcription (ISO 9984), together with Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian: la/uk/be/ru/ka/ka.
|it – ita – Italiano – Italian | About 67 million native speakers in Italy, Switzerland and neighbourig countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 99% | Names are essentially those of Nuova Lista degli Uccelli di tutto il Mondo of Renato Massa, 5a Edition, 2020. Names from the Lista Ornitica del Paleartico Occidentale of the EBN Italia by Gianluigi Castelli, Pietro D’Amelio and Marcel Haas, version 2019, were als taken into account, as well as occasionally from the Clements/Ornitour Italian world checklist (2015/2019), which shows quite some differences both with the names of Massa, and with the EBN list. . The Italian names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.|
|kl – kal – Kalaallisut – Greenlandic | Coverage 5% | Greenlandic bird names are new in Avionary. The names are based on the combined lists of asimi.gl, businessingreenland.gl and David Boertman (Arctic Research Centre of Aarhus Universitet DK), with further help and additions of Katti Frederiksen (Oqaasileriffik, Language Secretariat) and Aili Lage Labansen, Emma Kristensen and Else Løvstrøm (Pinngortitaleriffik, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources) in Greenland. The Greenlandic names are also listed on a reduced species list K, together with English and some of the Celtic languages: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.|
|kw – cor – Kernewek – Cornish | After becoming extinct at the end of the 18th century, the language of Cornwall has revived and is now used as a first language by some | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 20% | Davyth Fear recently provided an extended list of Cornish bird names. Previous input came from Brian Webb. The available Cornish names are also listed on the a shortened species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Greenlandic: la/en/gd/gv/kw/kl.|
|lb – ltz – Lëtzebuergesch – Luxemburgish | About 600,000 speakers in Luxembourg and neighbouring regions | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 22% | Names were kindly provided by Patric Lorgé of the Lëtzebuerger Natur- a Vulleschutzliga (LNVL). The available names in Luxemburgish are also listed on the a reduced species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.|
|lt – lit – Lietuvių – Lithuanian | Close to 3 million speakers in Lithuania and elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 94% | The original source of the Lithuanian names was Liutauras Raudonikis. Further work was done by members of the Lietuvos Ornitologų Draugija. The present names essentially correspond to those of the book “Paukščių Pavadinimų Žodynas” by Mečislovas Žalakevičius and Irena Žalakevičienė, 2nd ed. (2012). The Lithuanian names are also listed on the relevant species list L, together with Latvian, Turkish and Esperanto: la/lv/lt/tu/eo.|
|lv – lav – Latviešu – Latvian | About 1.5 million native speakers, in Latvia and other countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 91% | Latvian names are essentially those of Holarktikas Putnu Nosaukumi, the Holarctic list of Māris Strazds, Jānis Baumanis and Kaspars Funts (2014), adopted by the Latvijas Ornitoloģias Biedrība, with some additions. Jānis Baumanis and Māris Strazds provided the original names for Avionary. The available Latvian names are also listed on the relevant species list L, together with Lithuanian, Turkish and Esperanto: la/lv/lt/tr/eo.|
|mk – mkd – Македонски – Macedonian | Around 1.4 million speakers in (Northern) Macedonia and neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 54% | Macedonian names are those of the list of the Macedonian Ecological Society (Македонско Еколошко Друштво, MES), kindly provided by Metodija Velevski. The available Macedonian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.|
|mt – mlt – Malti – Maltese | About 500,000 native speakers in Malta | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 20% | Maltese bird names were given by Joe Sultana, Ornithological Society of Malta. The available Maltese names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Albanian and Basque: la/eu/mt/sq/el.|
|nl – nld – Nederlands – Dutch | Around 26 million native speakers in The Netherlands, Belgium, Surinam and some Caribbean islands | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage100% | Names of the Dutch Checklist of the Western Palaearctic of the Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna, januari 2021, are presented. Other species follow ‘Vogels van de wereld’ by Michel Walters (1997), with a few exceptions. A general exception is made for names containing proper names: according to general Dutch language principles, these are written as a single word, e.g. ‘Audouinmeeuw’ rather than ‘Audouins meeuw’. The Dutch names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af/lb.|
no – nor – Norsk – Norwegian | About 5.3 million speakers in Norway and neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 97% | Norwegian names are provided by the ‘Norsk Navnekomité for Fugl’ of the Norsk Ornitologisk Forening (NOF). The latest updated NOF “Verdensliste” was released in September 2020 by Morten Bergan, Per Ole Syvertsen, O.B. Hansen, H. Kvam, V. Ree and Ø. Syvertsen. The Norwegian names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.
|pl – pol – Polski – Polish | About 50 million speakers in Poland and other countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: >99% | The updated world list ‘Kompletna lista ptaków świata’ (update of July 2021) of Paweł Mielczarek and M. Kuziemko is used for Avionary and is accessible on the internet (http://listaptakow.eko.uj.edu.pl). Tadeusz Stawarczyk, Paweł Mielczarek and Włodzimierz Cichocki originally provided the Polish names. The Polish names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavonic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.|
|pt – por – Português – Portuguese | Around 215 million speakers in Portugal, Brazil, Alngila, Mozambique and other African countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: >99% | Names are from the recent work ‘Os Nomes Portugueses das Aves de todo o Mundo’ 2nd Ed, 2021 by Paulo Paixão (https://ec.europa.eu/translation/portuguese/magazine/documents/folha66_separata1_pt.pdf). Previous sources include ‘Nomes Portugueses das Aves do Paleárctico Ocidental’ by Hélder Costa and colleagues (2000) of the Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves (SPEA), with extensions in cooperation with Hélder Costa and Joaquim Muchaxo, and ‘Lista das Aves do Brasil’ of the Comité Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2021). The available Portuguese names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/ga/es/ca.|
|rm – roh – Rumantsch – Romansh (Rhaeto-romance) | About 40,000 speakers in Graubünden and some other cantons (Switzerland) | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 73% | The names are “Rumantsch Grischun”, i.e. standardised Romansh, which may have slight deviations in the various dialects (Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Putèr, Vallader). The names were provided by the Lia rumantscha, Servetsch da translaziun – Daniel Telli, Carin Coray, Angela Schmed – and considerably extended in versions 4.0 to 4.2 cooperation between Lia Rumantscha and Avionary. The available Romansh names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.|
|ro – ron – Română – Romanian | About 24 million speakers in Romania and Moldova | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 62% | The basic Romanian list was provided by Victor Ciochia of the Societatea de Ornitologie, Protecţia Păsărilor şi a Naturii din România. Corrections were taken from the list of the Asociaţia pentru Protecţia Păsărilor şi a Naturii “Milvus Group”. Additional Romanian bird names were derived from relevant dictionaries. The available Romanian names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.|
|ru – rus – Русский – Russian | Around 150 million native speakers in Russia and post-Soviet states | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 98% | Russian bird names are now thoroughly reviewed on the basis of “Birds of the World: Recommended Russian Names” (non-passerines: 2017, passerines: draft 2019) by Sergey Volkov and Yevgeniy Koblik. Previous names were derived from Vladimir E. Flint’s ‘Slovarj Nazvanij Zhivotnykh – Ptyci’ (Vocabularium Nominum Animalium – Aves). The Russian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Ukrainian, Belarusian and Georgian: la/uk/be/ru/ka.|
se – sme – Davvisámegiella – Northern Sami | About 20,000 speakers in Norway, Sweden and Finland | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 56% | The bird names in the language of the Northernmost part of Scandinavia are derived from “Nordsamiske fuglenavn / Davvisámegiela loddenamat” compiled by Magne Husby and Per M. Vars of the Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, Utredning 141, available at https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/275168?show=full, with some extensions. The Northern Sami names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian: la/hu/et/fi/se.
In addition to Northern Sami, Avionary also provides the available bird names in the two most relevant Sami sister languages: Lule Sami (Julevsámegiella, smj) and South Sami (Åarjelsaemien gïele, sma). Together with Northern Sami, Swedish and Norwegian, these are listed on species list SAMI: see under ‘Species Lists’.
|sk – slk – Slovenský – Slovak | About 5.0 million native speakers in Slovakia and neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 100% | Slovak bird names are those of the Slovak world list “Slovenské mená vtákov sveta” by Peter Kovalik and co-workers, update of August 2020. Originally, Slovak names for Avionary were given by Branislav Matoušek of the Slovenské Národné Múzeum. The Slovak names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/cs/sk/sl.|
|sl – slv – Slovenščina – Slovenian | Around 2.5 million speakres in Slovenia and elsewhere | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 68% | Janez Gregori of the Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije provided the Slovenian names. Further additions were kindly presented by Jurij Hanzel, chair of the Slovenian rarities committee of the Društvo za Opazovanje In Proučevanje Ptic Slovenije (DOPPS, Birdlife SI), on proposals from Avionary. The available Slovenian names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with West Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.|
|sq – sqi – Shqip – Albanian | About 7 million speakers in Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia and some of the neighbouring and the diaspora | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 25% | Grigor Jorgo, Museum of Natural Sciences, Tiranë, kindly provided the Albanian bird names. The available Albanian names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Maltese and Basque: la/eu/mt/sq/el.|
sr – srp – Srpski/Српски – Serbian | About 12 million speakers in Serbia, Bosnia Hercegovina, Montenegro and neighbouring countries; also considered as the Serbian variety of the Serbo-Croatian language | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 93% | The Serbian names are those of the “Srpska Nomenklatura I & II” of Vasić, V.F., Simić, D.V., et al. (2004-2005), kindly provided by Dragan Simić. Additional were provided by Željko Stanimirović. The available Serbian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg. Serbian uses both the Cyrillic and the Latin alphabet. Avionary uses the Latin alphabet; the corresponding Cyrillic letters are as follows: | | a (а), b (б), c (ц), č (ч), ć (ћ), d (д), dž (џ), đ (ђ), e (е), f (ф), g (г), h (х), i (и), j (ј), k (к), l (л), lj (љ), m (м), n (н), nj (њ), o (о), p (п), r (р), s (с), š (ш), t (т), u (у), v (в), z (з), ž (ж). Thus, Guska glogovnjača (Anser fabalis) is in Cyrillic: Гуска глоговњача.
|sv – swe – Svenska – Swedish | Around 10 million speakers in Sweden, Finland and some other neighbouring countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage: 99% | Swedish names are those of “Namnlistan över alla världens fågelarter”, version 13, July 2021, elaborated by the Taksonomikommitté of the Svenska Ornitologiska Förening (SOF) (Erling Jirle, Tommy Tyrberg, Gustav Asplund, Markus Lagerkvist). Previous contributions came from i.a. Mr. Nils Kjéllen. The Swedish names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.|
|tr – tur – Türkçe – Turkish | About 80 million speakers, in Turkey and some neighbouring countries | 4.2 Avionary Species Coverage: 98% | For the Turkish names, thanks go to Yakup Sancar Barış and Kerem Ali Boyla for their world list in “Dünya Kuşlarının Türkçe İsimleri” (www.kustr.org/kusisimleri). Previous contributions came from i.a.Güneşin Aydemir and Serhan Oksay. The available Turkish names are also listed on the relevant species list L, together with Latvian, Lithanian eand Esperanto: la/lv/lt/tr/eo.|
|uk – ukr – Українська – Ukrainian | About 40 million speakers in Ukraine, Russia and some other East European countries | Avionary 4.2 Species Coverage 98% | The Ukrainian names are those of the recent book ‘Vitchyzniana nomenklatura ptakhiv svitu’ (2018) of Hennady V. Fesenko of the Zahidnoukraïns’ke Ornitologičke Tovarystvo (West-Ukrainian Ornithological Society). Further names, especially recent and potential splits, were elaborated through fruitful personal communication with Mr. Fesenko. Ukrainian names were originally provided by Igor Gorban of Lviv State University, who sadly passed away in 2017. Ukrainian consistently uses two-word names for species (exceptionally one-word names for one-species families), and three-word names for subspecies. Where the (sub)species status in not settled, Avionary adds a middle word in parentheses, which applies if the taxon is considered as a subspecies, while it is to be left out for species status. The Ukrainian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Russian, Belarusian and Georgian: la/uk/be/ru/ka.|